Country Report Egypt

Economic Overview

The Government of Egypt (GoE) effectively executed a first rush of full scale monetary and auxiliary changes that effectively tended to various profound situated issues and settled the economy, support development and lay the foundation for increasingly unique private area interest in the economy. 

In the Financial Year (FY) 2019 (finishing June 30th, 2019), genuine Gross Domestic Product (GDP) development arrived at 5.6 percent, up from 5.3 percent in FY18. Information for the initial nine months of FY19 show that this pickup is driven by net fares. Private venture is likewise getting, despite the fact that from a low base and with drowsy Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) for the most part coordinated to hydrocarbons. 

Unemployment decreased to 7.5 percent in the final quarter ofFY19 (from 9.9 percent a year sooner), although joined by contracting work power interest. 

While macroeconomic condition has improved, social conditions stay troublesome. Somewhere in the range of 2016 and 2018, ostensible compensation development fell beneath expansion. Authority evaluations revealed that the portion of the populace living underneath the national neediness line in FY18 expanded to 32.5 percent, from 27.8 in 2015, with the most elevated destitution rates still in country Upper Egypt. 

To reduce the unfavorable impacts of the financial changes on poor people and powerless and increment interests in Egypt’s human capital, the administration has scaled up key momentary social insurance moderating measures, including through higher portions of nourishment brilliant cards and extended focused on contingent and unlimited money move projects.

Main sectors of Industry


The Nile Valley and Delta are the nation’s two most horticulturally gainful grounds, which covers an expected 6 million sections of land when consolidated. Grains (rice, wheat, and corn), cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, and onions are the most significant harvests in Egypt. The greater part of Egypt sits on a desert, which grows every year, compromising the nation’s 3.1 million-hectare arable land. An expected 11,736 hectares of this agrarian land is lost to desertification every year. As water is a rare asset in the nation, Egypt has put intensely in sun based controlled desalination offices. The nation depends on nourishment imports to support its household request. The household creation of wheat in the nation was about 8.3 million tons in 2015, against an interest of 19.6 million tons. In a similar period, the nation delivered 6.1 million tons of corn, against an interest of 10.9 million tons. A large portion of the imported grain is sourced from the United States. 


The exhibition of Egypt’s economy is directed by the nation’s vitality industry, which is the nation’s top outside trade worker. The primary parts in this industry are oil, gaseous petrol, hydro-control, and sun based and wind control. 


Oil overwhelms Egypt’s vitality industry, with the nation creating as much as 0.9 million barrels of oil every day. The demonstrated oil saves on which Egypt sits on are among the biggest all around, evaluated to be 3.7 billion barrels. Egypt is a noteworthy player in worldwide oil creation and is an individual from the OAPEC (an abbreviation for Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries). The Gulf of Suez, the Western and Eastern Deserts, and the Sinai Peninsula are Egypt’s top oil-delivering areas. The greatest of all processing plants in the nation is the El-Nasr Refinery arranged in Suez, which has a limit of refining about 0.146 million barrels of oil every day. Aggregately, every one of the nine treatment facilities in the nation have a day by day limit of handling over 0.726 million barrels. The nation devours the vast majority of its oil; as much as 0.564 million barrels every day, most of which is utilized in control creation. 

Natural gas 

Egypt is likewise a significant maker of flammable gas, having Africa’s third biggest affirmed gas saves. The nation is accepted to sit on 120 trillion cubic feet of flammable gas saves. The Zohr area sits on the biggest gas field stores in the Mediterranean locale, assessed to have 30 trillion cubic feet in volume. Egypt’s Eastern and Western Deserts are accepted to aggregately have 5.7 million barrels in shale oil saves, among the most noteworthy in the area. The vast majority of the gaseous petrol delivered in Egypt is devoured locally. In 2013, 1.9 trillion cubic feet of the complete 2 trillion cubic feet of petroleum gas delivered in the nation went to the household showcase. The Middle East is a significant market for Egypt’s gaseous petrol, the vast majority of which is moved through the 750-mile long Arab Gas Pipeline. 


Hydropower is the main wellspring of Egypt’s power, as the nation takes advantage of the intensity of the Nile. There are various hydropower stations found along the Nile, with the Aswan High Dam, the Naga Hamady and the Esna Dam being the three significant stations. Aswan High Dam is the most significant of the three and has a power creation limit of 2,100 MW. The nation is likewise going to wander into atomic vitality, following quite a while of thoughts and plans are in progress to build up a $1.5-billion atomic power plant at El Dabasa. 

Solar and Wind Power

Another division in the business is sun oriented vitality. With the vast majority of the nation being a desert, and having the absolute most elevated yearly sunlight based hours on the planet, it is normal that Egypt is a significant player in sun based vitality creation. In any case, regardless of expanded ventures from the Egyptian government in sustainable power source, sun powered vitality represents just 1% of the nation’s power. In any case, Egypt is home to amazing sunlight based establishment ventures, including the world’s biggest sun based establishment; the Benban Solar Park. Wind vitality is another region where Egypt has incredible potential, especially along the bank of the Red Sea. The nation has set up framework to take advantage of this vitality asset, which is required to represent about 12% of the nation’s power generation. 

The travel Industry 

Another key supporter of Egypt’s economy is the nation’s travel industry. The business utilizes about 12% of Egypt’s work power and records for 11% of Egypt’s Gross Domestic Product. The Great Pyramids of Giza, are the nation’s star fascination. Egypt’s notoriety as a top vacationer goal rose colossally in the twentieth century, with traveler numbers developing from 100,000 out of 1951, to 5.5 million out of 2000. Traveler numbers in Egypt came to their most elevated in 2010 when roughly 14.7 million guests visited the nation getting $12.5 billion in income. Be that as it may, the industry is yet to arrive at such statures in income and visitor numbers, after the 2011 Arab Spring and the common distress that followed destroyed the country’s notoriety universally.

Taxes for businesses in Egypt

Inhabitant organizations are burdened on overall salary. Non-inhabitant companies and organizations make good on regulatory expense on pay got from their changeless foundations (PEs) in Egypt. 

The corporate personal assessment (CIT) rate in Egypt is 22.5% on the net assessable benefits of an organization. 

The above rate applies to a wide range of business exercises with the exception of oil investigation organizations, whose benefits are burdened at 40.55%. Likewise, the benefits of the Suez Canal Authority, the Egyptian Petroleum Authority, and the Central Bank of Egypt are assessable at a pace of 40%. 

There are no governorate or local taxes on corporate income in Egypt.

Investing in Egypt

Financial Benefits 

Under the new Law, beginning a speculation will be excluded from stamp charge, most administrative costs, and land/property enlistment costs. All the more critically, the Law stipulates that traditions on all gear and materials required for the assembling and foundation of speculation ventures will be diminished and brought together at a pace of 2%. 

A finding going from 30% to 80% of the venture costs will apply. 

Work Exceptions 

The Law takes into account the arrangement of 2 ostracize workers for each 10 Egyptian representatives after specific conditions are met, for example, the inaccessibility of appropriately prepared national labor. This is a special case to the arrangements of Egyptian Labor Law which stipulate that the proportion of exiles to Egyptian representatives must be 1 to 9. 

Reintroduction and Restructuring of a Clear Investment Map 

The idea of a speculation guide was first presented in the previous Investment Law (no.8 of 1997), yet was evacuated thereafter. Nonetheless, by and by, the Industrial Development Authority coordinated financial specialists towards modern zones where comparative exercises were based. 

The new Investment Law resuscitates the venture map idea. The guide will be organized on the key needs of businesses and will be sorted out into geographic zones. So as to guarantee the guide stays aware of venture needs, it will be returned to and refreshed occasionally, and inside a limit of like clockwork. 

Contingent upon the kind of venture task and how essential it is, the Prime Minister is qualified for issue pronouncements apportioning certain plots of land/genuine properties for certain speculation extends specifically, for example, foundation ventures, sustainable power source activities, and undertakings to be finished through an open private association. In these conditions, no further strategies are required so as to secure the land/property after the issuance of such announcements. 

As with the expectation of complimentary zones, they are built up in Egypt by righteousness of a Law. The Prime Minister may apportion a free zone for certain specific ventures having an exportation objective. When a financial specialist is allowed with a permit to build up its undertaking in a free zone, the speculator is empowered to appreciate impetuses and benefits, without the should be enrolled at the Egyptian Industrial Registry. 

In a free zone, a speculator may acquire a usufruct directly on the plot of arrive on which the financial specialist will set up the necessary assembling office as well as any necessary genuine properties. 

Building up a venture in a free zone empowers the speculator to be absolved from the material traditions systems, importation and exportation guidelines, esteem included expense or traditions charge. In addition, any necessary materials, gear, supplies and transportation implies (aside from traveler vehicles) for taking part in the action of the venture undertaking are absolved from traditions charge, esteem included assessment and different duties and costs. 

Also, ventures built up in free zones are excluded from material costs and assessment systems pertinent in Egypt. 

Renewed Guarantees 

So as to further soothe financial specialist concerns in regards to the Egyptian specialists, the Law keeps up indistinguishable assurances from the past law did. It guarantees speculators that administration specialists won’t be qualified for nationalize venture ventures, confiscate them except if under certain reasonable pay and conditions are met; and solidify or seize or force guardianship aside from by prudence of a court request. 

Furthermore, regulatory specialists are not qualified for issue any declarations including any monetary weights onto the financial specialist, or dropping any license without looking for the endorsement of the General Authority for Investment.

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